- "We, the beings of the Galaxy, in order to form a free union of planets, establish justice, provide for common peace and prosperity, and to secure liberty for all being, do ordain and establish this New Republic. Let the stars sing! Let the planets shout! Let the Republic begin!"
- — Excerpt taken from the Declaration of a New Republic
The New Galactic Republic was the name of the galactic government established by the Alliance to Restore the Republic to replace the Galactic Empire after the Battle of Endor.
Formed in 5 ABY, after the dissolution of the former Alliance of Free Planets (which was formed directly after the Battle of Endor as an intermediate government), it was to become the supreme governmental authority of the Galaxy. The "New" Republic was supposed to be a sort of continuation of the original Galactic Republic that had become known as the Old Republic at that time.
The New Republic was founded on the same premise that the old Galactic Republic was a thousand generations earlier—to have a representative parliamentary body govern the Galaxy in a fair and equal manner—and it was designed to eradicate the shortcomings that brought about the Galactic Republic's downfall. The New Republic was protected by the New Jedi Order that was established by Luke Skywalker, just as the Galactic Republic was once protected by the old Jedi Order.
The New Republic of the Exodus Boards is currently one of the largest and most powerful regimes in the galaxy, surpassed only by the Galactic Empire. Following the defeat at the Battle of Corellia, the New Republic became overshadowed by the Empire. The two governments have since formed an uneasy truce to deal with the Xen’Chi threat.
Membership in the New Republic
The New Republic was a voluntary confederation organized on democratic principles under the New Republic Common Charter and in accord with the ideals and purposes embodied in the Declaration of a New Republic. Primary (voting) membership was available to any independent sovereign political entity representing one or more unified planetary populations, or to other recognized and definable territories. Membership followed an application process (during which the candidate member reviewed the Charter and other governing statutes and agreed to abide by them) and an assessment process (during which the candidate member's annual support contribution was determined).
Affiliate (non-voting) membership was available to subordinate political units (for example, the individual members of a league of worlds) and to duly recognized representatives of sentient species not constituting a political unit.
Observer (non-voting) membership was available to nonmember allies of the New Republic.
The Declaration of a New Republic set forth the principles to which the New Republic was dedicated; the common Charter was the actual mechanism by which planets became members, and specified both the rights and duties of members, and the various institutions of government and their powers. The common Charter was a creation of the transitional Provisional Council.
The government of the New Republic was organized around a unicameral legislative body called the New Republic Senate. Primary members were represented in the Senate by a Senator. Each Senator had a single vote, regardless of the population represented. Affiliate members were represented on Coruscant by a Legate, who could speak in general sessions of the Senate, but could not vote on official Senate business (to avoid dual representation) or serve in the Senate's various working bodies.
As a body with a large and potentially unlimited membership, the Senate-in-whole was an almost impossibly unwieldy structure for getting work done. Consequently, most of the real governance was performed by the Senate's councils, committees, and commissions. The daily business of the Senate proper was primarily speech-making and public debate. When the Senate met as a committee of the whole, it was sometimes referred to as the New Republic Assembly.
Councils were appointed bodies with autonomous decision-making and appropriation authority over some segment of government operations outside the Senate proper (for example, the Defense Council, which oversaw the Navy). The most populous and powerful members of the New Republic were disproportionately represented on the Senate's councils.
Committees were elected bodies with the authority to administer various aspects of Senate operations, including the general budget. They were semi-autonomous; in the event of a unanimous committee vote, the approval of the Senate-in-whole was not required (however, the Senate-in-whole could override a less-than-unanimous committee decision with a three-to-five majority).
Commissions were voluntary bodies with an advisory capacity only. They prepared reports on issues of concern for presentation to the President of the Senate, to the Minister of State, to the Supreme Commander, or to the general membership; scheduled and conducted hearings; and contracted for independent research.
The New Republic was headed by the Chief of State. The Chief of State was elected by fifty percent and one vote majority of the Senators. The Chief of State was also the President of the Senate and Commander-in-Chief of the Fleet, although that title was sometimes used to refer to the highest ranking member of the military.
Tradition varied on the proper form of address for the President. In general, Senators, the Senate bureaucracy, and the Coruscanti media referred to the President, while the General Ministry, member worlds, and the population of the New Republic often referred to the Chief of State, depending on local languages and history.
The Chief of State could be recalled by a majority vote of the Senate on presentation of a petition of no-confidence by a majority of the Ruling, or Inner, Council, or by a quarter of the primary members of the Senate. The election of a President could be blocked by the Ruling Council on a unanimous vote. In practice, the power of the Ruling Council to void an election and initiate the recall of a sitting President meant that any candidate proposed by or approved by the Ruling Council was likely to be elected by the Senate. The Ruling Council consisted of the chairmen of the Senate councils and the President of the Senate. The President could select any member of the Ruling Council to conduct the business of the Senate in her absence from that body.
If the president became incapacitated, incommunicado, or died, the chairman of the Ministry Council selected an acting Chief of State from among the following: any former President, the current Minister of State, any former Minister of State.
The members of the Court of Justice were selected by the Senate Justice Council from a list of nominees presented by the President of the Senate. The First Justice was elected by the other members of the Court from among their number. Nominally independent, the power of the Court of Justice was limited by its narrowly defined jurisdiction: to review charges of violations of the Charter by members or by the other branches of the New Republic's government. The Court of Justice did not serve as the court of last appeal for ordinary civil and criminal cases; those were settled by local judicial authorities on member worlds.
The General Ministry
The General Ministry was formed through the Common Charter to ensure that the government paid due attention to domestic concerns, not just military or defense ones. Agencies ranging from the New Republic Intelligence Service to the Obroan Institute for Archaeology fell under the General Ministry's jurisdiction.
Like its Old Republic predecessor, the General Ministry oversaw a wide variety of concerns; including, but not limited too, the ministries of government, finance, commerce, security and intelligence, and science and education. The latter segment placed a number independent institutes and universities, termed the General Ministry Institutes, under its oversight.
The First Administrator, appointed by the Ministry Council with the approval of the President of the Senate, led the New Republic General Ministry, reporting to the Minister of State.
List of Councils
New Republic Military
The New Republic Defense Force was the military arm of the New Republic. It operated five full fleets, each consisting of hundreds of warships, transports, and support vessels, divided into battle groups and task forces, in addition to ground troop divisions and starfighter wings. The fleets were known collectively as the New Republic Defense Fleet, although many referred to it as the New Republic Navy.
After the reorganization of the military into a single unified command, the former Minister of Defense was called the Supreme Commander, and the posts of Minister of the Army and Minister of the Navy were abolished.
The Supreme Commander, appointed by the Defense Council with the approval of the President of the Senate, led the Defense Force. He reported to the Chief of State through the Minister of State. The Supreme Commander often has others in charge of the different parts of the Combined Defense Forces of the New Republic. The Supreme Commander position is more of an administrator than an actual field commander.
The End of the Republic
After the Clone Wars, the tension between Palpatine and the Jedi began to grow, as the war progressed. Many members of the Jedi Council remained skeptical of Palpatine's growing powers, especially at the expense of the Senate;the only body they were legally obligated to serve. Eventually the Jedi, with the help of Anakin Skywalker, discovered that Palpatine was actually the elusive Darth Sidious, and they conspired to arrest him. Palpatine killed all four of the Jedi Masters sent to take him into custody ;most notably, Mace Windu, and responded by issuing a decree which declared all Jedi to be enemies of the Republic, after portraying them assassins bent on taking over the Republic. Palpatine then issued Order 66, which would require clone troopers to execute their Jedi commanders.
At the conclusion of the Clone Wars in 19 BBY, Palpatine addressed the Senate and declared that the Galactic Republic would become a Galactic Empire so strong as to never be threatened by outside forces again. The Chancellor, who by this time had been grotesquely disfigured (by Mace Windu), proclaimed himself to be the first Emperor of the Galaxy. Deluded by Palpatine's charm and skill, in conjunction with the effects of his dark side powers of persuasion, the majority of the Senate cheered him on loudly in approval. Soon afterwards, industries were nationalized and the Republic was replaced by the totalitarian Empire. In later years, the people of the Galaxy would greatly rue their short-sightedness.
After 25,034 years, the Galactic Republic had ceased to exist. Only a shrunken, powerless Imperial Senate that would be used as a puppet by the Emperor would continue to exist and, shortly before the Battle of Yavin, Palpatine finally decided that Dissolution of the Imperial Senate was the best action, and effectively swept the last remnants of the Republic away. The powers the Senate had were bestowed upon the Moffs and regional governors.
Galactic Civil War
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